When investigated, URBAN was translated literally (i.e. without explicitation) either with a clear expression of the the built environment of the URBAN condition or of its CIVIL SOCIETY. The yielded translations distinctly highlight the variations that continue to be used regionally or according to discipline in the Arabic speaking milieu. Participants in Cairo opted for a translation which highlights the architectural/ built up city or URBAN environment, while the translation agreed upon in Amman and Tunis highlights the civil society implicit within the URBAN environment. Participants in Beirut took the city itself as the loci or manifestation of what is URBAN.
Participants yielded a direct translation through equivalence.